1902 Public Works Report | Gwulo: Old Hong Kong

1902 Public Works Report

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Excerpts:

WORK UNDER THE BUILDING ORDINANCE

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16. General Remarks.—An unsatisfactory feature of the year was the large number of collapses of buildings which occurred, many of the buildings involved being new or nearly so. In several cases the collapses were attended with considerable loss of life. With a view to preventing such occurrences in future, numerous provisions have been inserted in the new Ordinance referred to above. They include a substantial increase in the thickness of walls and the building of certain portions in cement mortar, the insertion of iron tie-rods in unsupported external walls of considerable length, the prohibition of persons practising as Architects unless authorized by the Governor in Council and the imposition of increased responsibilities upon Architects.

The Naval Yard Extension and Messrs. Butterfield & Swire’s Shipyard Works were in progress throughout the year, and building operations were going on over the entire area bounded by Ice House Street, Des Voeux Road, Pedder Street and Connaught Road. The South-eastern section of Princes Buildings was also begun. The erection of so many large buildings simultaneously taxes the resources of the Colony in the production of the materials and the supply of skilled labour required to carry them out.

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43. Governor's Peak Residence.—The buildings were completed in July and occupied by His Excellency the Governor on his return to the Colony in September. Sundry small alterations were subsequently made, which were practically completed by the end of the year.

The main building contains the following accommodation on the ground floor:—

Dining room, drawing room, billiard room, boudoir, Governor’s office, office for Private Secretary and Aide-de-Camp and waiting room; and on the upper floor:— 4 large bed-rooms, two of which have dressing-rooms attached, and three smaller bed-rooms, besides bath-rooms. The hall and principal staircase occupy a large amount of space on both floors, being lighted by means of a large skylight. Wide enclosed verandahs are carried round three sides of the building. 

In a wing attached to the main building are the kitchen, larder, pantry, a manservant’s room and a drying-room on the ground floor and a school-room, drying -room and maid’s room on the upper floor. An enclosed verandah is provided round two sides.

A short distance from the main building and connected with it by a covered way, are the servants’ quarters containing 3 boys’ rooms, 2 amahs’ rooms, a cooks’ room and accommodation for 16 coolies, besides cook-houses, &c. Separate quarters are provided for the gardeners and there is also a shelter for chairs. Entrance gates and a small gate-lodge have been erected at the entrance to the grounds.

In the main building, all floors of verandahs and bath-rooms are constructed of iron beams and concrete and laid with encaustic tiles; the floors of the kitchen, pantry, &c. on the ground floor being similarly laid, but supported on the solid ground. All other floors are of teak-wood. The main staircase is constructed entirely of teak with carved screen at foot and massive main balusters.

The principal rooms on ground floor, the hall and staircase have panelled wooden dadoes and the kitchen, larder and all bathrooms have dadoes of white glazed tiles. All the ceilings and cornices are of wood, except in the case of the verandahs, &c. where they are formed by the underside of the concrete floors already mentioned. The ceilings of the principal rooms on the ground floor are suitably panelled.

The main roof is Covered with double pan and roll tiling, whilst the roof of verandahs and of towers at angles of building are of cement concrete.

Hot and cold water are laid on to all bath-rooms and the lighting of the building is by gas; electric light not being available at the Peak. A lightning conductor has been fixed on each of the four towers.

Storm-water is carried off in open channels, as far as practicable, and a system of drains is provided for waste water and connected with the Peak main drain.

The approach road and some of the principal pathways about the grounds have been concreted, whilst a number of the old paths have been improved or new paths made round the adjacent hills.

The buildings were erected under the supervision of the Public Works Department from designs supplied by Messrs. Palmer & Turner, Architects.

44. No. 7 Police Station.– This work was completed in September when the Police entered into occupation of the buildings. These occupy the site of the old station, at the junction of Pokfulam and Queen's Roads, being arranged round the North, East and South sides of it, with a compound in the middle, whilst the West side is left open. They are all of two storeys in height, with a basement where the site, which varies considerably in level, admits of one.

On the North side, facing Queen's Road, are the charge room, separate mess rooms for European, Indian and Chinese Constables, a dormitory for for Chinese firemen, and Interpreter's room and three cells on the ground floor, and, on the upper floor, quarters for an inspector (four rooms and bathroom), a Sergeant's room a dormitory for 4 European constables, a bathroom and store room. In a basement, which extends under a portion of the building and opens onto Queens Road, there is a workshop and store and accommodation for a fire engine.

On the south side are two dormitories for Indian constables (32 beds in all) and two for Chinese (also 32 beds in all). A basement for storage purposes extends under part of the building.

On the East side are the various kitchens, cook houses and bathrooms, besides a drying room and lamp room. Latrines are provided in a separate building. 

The buildings are of brick, plastered over externally, and roofed with double pan and roll tiling. Masonry and brick for around, with concrete floor, projects from the North Block over the footpath in Queen's Road, whilst the two remaining blocks have verandahs of iron and concrete, which serve as corridors. The floors of all rooms are of hardwood, iron beams being inserted where required to support the joists. The ceilings and cornices are of wood. The floors of bathrooms, cook houses, etc are of cement concrete supported on iron beams. The compound is surfaced with concrete and is enclosed on the West side by a substantial boundary wall.

Comments

7. Military Lands: Sites were granted to the Military Authorities for two electric-light emplacements on the Praya wall in the Western district of the City. Negotiations were in progress throughout the year with regard to an exchange of lands involving large areas between the Colonial Government and the military authorities. A settlement in the matter had not been arrived at by the close of the year.

8. Naval Lands: Kowloon Marine Lot No. 35 was acquired by the Naval authorities and a sum of $43,700 paid into the Treasury in commutation of the Crown rent.

9. Piers: - ln consequence of the numerous applications received for the right of erecting piers opposite the ends of public streets, in certain portions of the City, recourse was had to public auction for the disposal of such rights, with the result that a substantial sum ($53,520) was realized. With the exception of $1,020 paid for a pier on a short lease at Yaumati, the above amount was derived from 3 piers opposite the West end of Wing Lok Street, Queen Street and Sutherland Street, respectively, for all of which leases extending to the 31st December, 1949 will be issued. Rent is payable under the Piers Ordinance (No. 37 of 1895).

Licences were issued for 10 temporary piers in Hongkong, (1 in Kowloon and 6 in the New Territory, the amount of fees payable for these being $1,659.48.

 

10. Granite Quarries: A new system of letting of letting the granite quarries was adopted. Hitherto, a monopoly of the right of quarrying granite has been let by tender or public auction for a term of one year and, though the quarries in Hong Kong and Kowloon were put up separately, it generally happened that all of them fell into the hands of one man. The quarries have now been divided up into small groups and let for periods of 5 years, Government reserving to itself the right to lease any number of new quarries which may be required. The annual income from this source is $25,525, exclusive of quarries in the New Territory.

 

15. Ordinances: A bill consolidating the laws in force relative to buildings and containing numerous amendments was read a first time on the 11th March, but was subsequently withdrawn in consequence of its being ascertained that it did not embody all the suggestions which the Sanitary Experts (Mr. O. CHADWICK and Professor SIMPSON) proposed to make with a view ‘to improving the sanitary condition of the City.

 

Another Bill, entitled the Public Health and Buildings Ordinance, in which all the laws in force relating to these matters were consolidated and amended, was read a first time on the 7th July, 1902. lt had not, however, been passed by the close of the year. Its principal features were the abolition of cubicles not directly lighted by Windows, the requirement of lanes and larger yard-spaces, and the abatement of overcrowding by requiring a greater floor area and cubic space per head in the case of most of the existing houses.

 

17. Maintenance of Buildings

 

The Pavilions at the Peak, which had been leased to the Peak Club since 1897 were, restored to the purpose for which they were originally erected, namely, a summer resort for the senior Oflicers of the Civil Service. Considerable alterations and extensions of the Government Offices were undertaken. All the Government Buildings, with slight exceptions, were maintained in a good state of repair.

 

In the New Territory, the principal work executed was the repair of the old Customs Station at Capsuimun. There were 7 new Police Stations occupied by the close of the year and, except at Sha Tin, all the Police stationed in the New Territory are now comfortably housed, either in new buildings or in old ones which have been adapted for the purpose.

 

37. Maintenance of Waterworks, City & Hill District— The year 1902 will be a memorable one on account of the severe drought experienced during the early part of it; the subsequent heavy rainfall condensed into a period of about three months; and the necessity of again resorting to intermittent supply in consequence of the early cessation of the rains, the rainfall of September being the lowest on record. 

….

 

The question of resuming possession of the Lai Chi Kok stream, which had been leased to the Steam Water Boat Co., was considered, but was abandoned on account of the daily yield being somewhat inadequate, besides which its resumption would have caused serious interference with the supply to the shipping. The settlement of the Company’s claim for damages would also have been a troublesome matter.

 

Though considerably further afield, being six miles distant from the City, the stream near Tsuen Wan was free from these objections. lt had a yield of about half a million gallons per day and was used only for driving a sandalwood-grinding mill, and, as samples tested by the Government Analyst showed the water to be suitable for potable purposes, arrangements were at once made to render it available for transport to the Praya where it could be distributed for the supply of the population of the low-level district.

 

By negotiation with the owner of the sandalwood mill, the use of his dam and channel was obtained, the latter being extended for a distance of over 300 yards to a point near the shore whence a bamboo pier, 400 feet long, was constructed to carry a large ‘wooden shoot for discharging the Water into lighters. It was found necessary to line the new channel, as the water flowing along it became very muddy on account of the washing away of the softer portions of ground through which it was cut, and this was done with 9” stoneware pipes.

 

Three large lighters, each capable of containing over 90,000 gallons, were hired and, after being thoroughly cleansed, were fitted up with timber bulkheads in order to adapt them for conveying Water. Before the end of the drought, the number of lighters was increased to five. These were filled from the shoot already referred to and towed to the Praya.

 

On the Praya, three tanks having a combined capacity of 100,000 gallons were constructed of brick and concrete. One was situated near Wing Wo Street, another at the West end of Wing Lok Street, and the third at Eastern Street, all three being connected by a line of wrought or cast iron pipes, 6 and 7 inches diameter, laid along the Praya Wall. Barricades were erected at the tanks, with entrances and exits, to enable the stream of people to be regulated and thus avoid loss of time through the confusion which might otherwise have arisen.

 

At the central tank, a (3~inch centrifugal pump, mounted on a barge, and provided with the necessary boiler and connections to the lighters and tank, was stationed for pumping the water,all the tanks being supplied simultaneously through the pipe-line already mentioned. About 20 large taps, each of which was capable of filling a 5-gallon bucket in a minute, were provided at each tank in the first instance, 5 more taps being added subsequently. A duplicate set of pumping machinery was fitted up and held in readiness in case of a break-down occurring to the one in use.

 

Military guards were stationed at the tanks to maintain order and ensure that all who came to obtain water should take their turn in their order of coming.

 

The arrangements were got into working order on the 10th March and, from that date onwards till the 17th May, a regular daily supply was maintained from the tanks, varying from 247,000 gallons at the beginning to 432,000 gallons at the end of the period mentioned.

 

47. Completion of Gaol Officers Quarters: - The whole of these buildings, which are situated at the junction of Arbuthnot Road and Wyndham Street, were at length completed and occupied by the Gaol staff during the early part of the year. There are three separate main blocks of buildings, all of which are 3 storeys in height, with coolie quarters either wholly or partly detached.

 

No. 1 Block contains six sets of married quarters-—3 sets of at rooms and 5 sets of 3 rooms each - With separate kitchen, bath-room and servants’ accommodation. No. 2 Block is for Indian warders and contains two dormitories (28 beds each), two large mess-rooms, a recreation room and 6 bathrooms, whilst 2 cookhouses, 2 cook’s rooms and latrine accommodation are provided in a separate building. No. 3 Block is for European Warders and contains two dormitories (20 beds each), a large mess and recreation room, a common room, 4 bathrooms, 2 water-closets and 2 lavatories. In a small detached building are the kitchen and coolie quarters.

 

The buildings are all of Canton red brick, plastered externally, and rooted with double pan and roll tiling. Balconies are provided on all the main blocks, being constructed of cement concrete, with iron beams, pillars and railings, and supported on massive stone corbels. The floors of all rooms are of hardwood, the joists being supported on iron beams where required. The ceilings and cornices are of wood. The staircases are of stone with iron balusters and rails. All bath-room floors are of cement concrete. The compounds are surfaced with concrete and iron railings are provided for protection round the various retaining walls which form the site into terraces.

 

48. Tai Po Road.- The whole of the Work has been completed, with the exception of the surfacing of the road and the trimming of some banks in the last 5 miles and fixing railings to bridges, and executing some cutting in the last mile. The road is open to rickshaw traflic throughout its entire length of 18 miles from Tsim Sha Tsui Point to Tai Po. Two miles of it consist of roads in the Old Territory, which were made before the New Territory was taken over, thus making the length of roadway constructed under the vote “ Tai Po Road” 16 miles.

 

Commencing from Tsim Sha Tsui Point, in order to avoid confusion in referring to the mileage of the road, the first 3 miles are practically level. After this, the road begins to ascend the Kowloon Range of hills running along the Southern slopes at a gradient generally of 1 in 20 up to a gap at a height of 441 feet, which is reached at about 4&½ miles. lt then traverses the Northern slopes of the range at comparatively easy gradients until it reaches the gap overlooking the Sha Tin Valley. The highest point of the road is 517 feet above Ordnance Datum, the level of the gap last mentioned being 442 feet, and its distance 6&¼ miles from the starting-point.

 

Following a downward gradient of 1 in 40, the flat land of the Sha Tin Valley is reached at 8&¾ miles and the road then runs level along the North side of Tide Cove or Sha Tin inlet to about 11&¾ miles. Leaving Tide Cove, another ascent commences over a gap 370 feet high, which is passed at 13&½ miles, and the road then falls by easy gradients to the shore of Tolo Harbour which is reached opposite the village of Wong Nai Au, at 17&¼ miles. Crossing a large stream by a bridge of 120 feet in length it touches a small island, where the landing pier for Tai Po is situated and, after traversing an embankment, 2,000 feet in length, passes through a cutting and terminates near Tai Po village, where it joins an old pathway. The width of the road is 14 feet.

 

There are in all 17 bridges, 13 of one span, 2 of two spans, 1 of three spans and 1 of 4 spans. The spans vary from 10 to 30 feet in length. All the bridges have masonry abutments and piers and are constructed of cement supported on steel joists. Iron railings are provided.

 

55. Praya East Reclamation.--Negotiations were in progress throughout the year with the Naval and Military Authorities regarding the boundary between their reclamation and the projected scheme and with the Owners of several Inland Lots, the conversion of which into Marine Lots had not hitherto been effected. The negotiations had not been concluded at the close of the year.

56. Police Station, Sheung Shui: - The buildings were completed and occupied by the Police in May, making the sixth new permanent Station built in the New Territory. The main building contains a charge-room, two cells, two rooms capable of accommodating 8 and 4 Indian constables, respectively, two rooms each capable of accommodating 4 Chinese Constables, two rooms for European Constables, two for a European Sergeant, and one for the Inspecting Ofiicer, besides 3 bathrooms, store and lamp-room. In a separate wing, which is connected with the main building by a covered way, are the kitchens, drying-room, store and Indians’ bathroom, besides an Interpreter’s room and some accommodation for servants. Suitable latrine accommodation is provided and a yard measuring about 88 feet by 22 feet has been enclosed by a boundary wall.

 

The buildings are of the same description as those for No. 7 Police Station, already described, the main building being 2 storeys high.

 

57. Police Station, Tai O.This is situated near the South-western extremity of Lantao Island and is the seventh permanent Station erected in the New Territory. It was completed and occupied by the Police in November.

 

The main building contains the following accommodation :- Charge-room, two cells, separate dormitories for 8 Indian and 4 Chinese Constables and 4 Chinese boatmen, one room for a European Constable, two for a-European Sergeant and one for the Inspecting Officer, besides 3 bathrooms and a store. A separate wing, which is connected with the main building by a covered way, contains the kitchens, drying-room, store and Indians’ bath-room, besides an Interpreter’s room and some accommodation for servants. Latrines are also provided. The main building is 2 storeys high.

 

58. Market at Kowloon Point.—A contract for levelling the site, which was entered into about the end of 1901, was completed in October. The work consisted of removing a mass of earth and rock and constructing a retaining wall, 35 feet in height, along the South side of the site, which is situated at the junction of Chater and Macdonnell Roads.

60. Resumption of Property.—The proposal to resume property in order to provide married quarters for the Indian Police was not carried out, but a sum of $14,000 was expended out of the Vote for that purpose in resuming certain areas near the lower end of Ladder Street to enable Lower Lascar Row to be extended Eastwards. The resumptions were made on the advice of the Sanitary Experts and had not all been completed at the close of the year.

 

61. Covering in Yard of Gaol.—This work consisted of constructing a roof over the upper yard on the West side of the gaol. The roof is supported on wrought iron columns and is covered with double pan and roll tiling. It was completed by the end of the year.

62. Altering Gaol Windows in order to prevent cases of suicide among the prisoners.—This work involved considerable alterations in the windows of the cells, numbering 413. It was satisfactorily completed by the end of the year.

 

54. Widening Conduit Road.~—In response to a petition signed by the owners of lots bordering on the road, the work of widening it from 12 feet to 16 feet was undertaken early in the year and had nearly been completed by its close. The completion of the work was greatly delayed by landslips which occurred near the Eastern end of the road and were due to the severe rainstorms, especially that of the 2nd August, when some very large masses of rock came down. The making good of these involved some alterations and the construction of considerable retaining Walls. The Work of constructing a portion of the road near its Western extremity, referred to in last year’s report, was taken over from the owner of Inland Lot 703, who failed to complete it within the time agreed upon.

65. Fence round Plague Hospital. In consequence of a portion of the ironwork, which was obtained from England, being lost in transit, some delay occurred in carrying out this work, but it was nearly completed by the end of the year. The fence is of iron, 5 feet 6 inches in height, iron entrance gates being provided.

66. Electric-Light Installation at Civil Hospital. This work was carried out by the Hongkong Electric Company, Limited, and was completed in October. The following is a statement of the number and disposition of the lights :~

Upper Hospital: 145

Lower Hospital: 76

Women’s Hospital 65

Maternity Hospital:  24

Lunatic Asylum: 42

Superintendents Residence and Staff Quarters: 123

Total: 475

Twenty-three fans were also provided, 18 of which are in the Upper and Lower Hospitals, 2 in the Maternity Hospital, and 3 in the Residence and Quarters.

 

68. Park in Western District of City.—A parapet wall was built in Lower Richmond Road and some iron railings were erected to fence off a slope westwards of the area on which the Diocesan School boys are permitted to play cricket. Some hollows in the ground were also filled in preparatory to turfing the slope to the North of Lower Richmond Road.

70. Quarantine Station for Dogs.—~The building, which adjoins the Kowloon Cattle Depot, was completed and handed over to the Sanitary Board in March. It contains accommodation for 10 dogs and a small exercising yard.

72. Public Bath-house at Cross Street, Wanchai.—A contract for this Work was let in January. Owing to the delays which occurred in connection with the supply of the glazed bricks required, the Work had not been fully completed at the close of the year. The structure is of brick, plastered externally, the walls being lined internally for a height of 5 feet with glazed bricks. ‘It contains 40 compartments, which are divided off by small partitions of glazed brick, and each compartment contains a small-sized Shanghai tub. The floor is laid with concrete and rendered over with cement, wooden gratings being provided alongside the baths.

 

A boiler is fitted up for the supply of hot water and the necessary tanks and hot and cold Water services have been provided. A small latrine and caretaker's quarters adjoin the bath-house.

 

73. Cattle Crematorium and Refuse Destructor: The installation, which is in proximity to the Animal Depots at Kennedy Town, consists of one cell for each purpose, the destructor being intended for dealing with rubbish removed from houses where Plague cases have occurred.The cells are connected with a common chimney-shaft. The work was not fully completed at the end of the year, but nearly so.

 

74. Additions and Alterations to Government Offices: - In order to afford additional accommodation for the Colonial Secretary’s and Public Works Departments, an extension at the South end of the building was undertaken. The extension contains two ofiices on the ground floor for the Public Works.Department and one large fire-proof room on the upper floor for the Colonial Secretary’s Records. All the rooms have boarded floors, the flooring of the fire-proof room being laid on top of cement concrete arching, supported on steel joists. This effectually disconnects it from the rooms on the ground floor and the roof is also composed of cement concrete arching, similarly supported and covered with a layer of asphalte to render it watertight. The steel joists are encased in the concrete in both cases and a fire-proof door of special construction is provided.

 

The principal alterations consisted of cutting out the arches between the pillars of the verandah on the West side of the building and reducing the size of the pillars themselves in order to improve the lighting of the groundfloor rooms. The whole of the work was well advanced at the end of the year.

 

75. District Watchman’s Quarters: -The sum of $1,000 was subscribed by Government towards the construction of this building, which was erected on a site granted by Government within the Taipingshan Resumed Area. The work was carried out by Messrs. PALMER & TURNER, Architects, on behalf of the District Watchmen’s Committee, the balance of the cost being defrayed from funds at their disposal.

 

77. Repairs and Alterations to Government Pavilions:- When the buildings were vacated by the Peak Club, it was found necessary to carry out extensive alterations and repairs in order to render them suitable for occupation by the Senior Government Ofiicers as formerly. These Were completed in time to enable the buildings to be occupied for a portion of the hot season.

81. Coronation Celebrations: - Arrangements were made for illuminating a number of the principal Public Buildings, including the Queen’s Statue, on the occasion of the Coronation of Their Majesties the King and Queen. All preparations had been practically completed for the  night of the 27th June when the arrangements were cancelled in consequence of His Majesty’s illness. The illuminations subsequently took place on the night of the 9th August, but Were unfortunately marred by a heavy downpour of rain, which occurred at an early stage of the proceedings.

 

The following are some particulars of the Buildings treated:

 

Queen’s Statue—730 incandescent electric lamps outlining the canopy &c.

Government House—530 incandescent electric lamps forming the devices of a Crown, Prince of Wales’ feathers and the letters E. R.

Clock Tower— 4,000 small, coloured glass lamps, besides 56 flare lamps. In addition to the above, about 6,000 lanterns were used in illuminating the Post Office, Supreme Court and other buildings.

 

The only other events in connection with the Coronation celebrations, which require to be recorded here, were the unveiling of the Duke of CONNAUGHT’S Statue presented to the Colony by the Honourable Sir CATCHICK PAUL CHATER, G.M.G.) on the 5th July, and the turning oi the first sod of the King’s Park in Kowloon on the 6th August, both of which ceremonies were performed by H. E. Major-General Sir Wm. Julius GASCOIGNIE, K.C.M.G., Otficer Administering the Government. On the occasion of the latter, a tree was planted near Austin Road by Lady GASCOIGNE. The scheme for the formation of the Park involves the removal of the Rifle Ranges to a new site and the settlement of the boundaries of land bordering on the Park required by the Military Authorities for the erection of Barracks. These matters were still under negotiation at the end of the year.

 
 

83. Site for New Post Office, Treasury, &c. - The area of the Reclamation pertaining to Marine Lots Nos. 99 and 100, bounded by Connaught Road, Pedder Street and Des Voeux Road on the North, East and South sides, respectively, was acquired by Government for the site of the New Post Oflice. It is also intended to provide accommodation on the site, by erecting a three-storied building, for the Treasury and other departments. Competitive designs for the building were called for from Architects in the Colony and in Shanghai and Singapore. The area of the site is 25,414 square feet; the amount paid for it being $508,280, or at the rate of $20 per square foot.

86. Alterations of Roads.——As the result of negotiations with Messrs. BUTTERFIELD & SWIRE, it was arranged that the diverted portion of the Shaukiwan Road being constructed by them past their shipyard should be widened from 30 feet to 75 feet. From the configuration of the ground, it would have been almost impracticable to have effected any Widening of the road after the construction and laying out of their shipyard had been completed.

A proposal was submitted to the Kowloon Wharf and Godown Company, for carrying out certain alterations and exchanges to enable the public traffic to be diverted from the Praya. at Kowloon, which is so greatly obstructed by their tramway lines and trucks and the conduct of their business generally. The Company submitted an alternative proposal, which the Government expressed itself prepared to accept on certain terms. The terms, however, were not acceptable to the Company and, as a compromise agreeable to both parties could not be arranged, the matter dropped.

88. Jubilee Road. - The first half of this road, from Kennedy Town to its point of intersection with the path to Sassoon’s Villa (Farm Lot 40), was completed in the early part of the year and Work on the remaining portion to Aberdeen was well advanced by its close.

90. Harlech Road and Road between Wanchai and Wongneichong Gaps.-— Work on these roads was at a standstill during the year. As mentioned in last year’s report, both of them are being constructed by the Military Authorities.

 

91. Electric Tramway: - An Ordinance authorizing the construction of an electric tramway from Kennedy Town to Shaukiwan, with a branch line to Happy Valley, was passed in April. Up to the end of the year, the work of laying the tramway had not been begun.