1894 Public Works Department Annual Report | Gwulo: Old Hong Kong
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1894 Public Works Department Annual Report

Copy of original available online at HKGRO. (You may need to click the link twice to see the document.)

[excerpts]

 

ANNUALLY RECURRENT WORKS.

2. Repairs to Government Buildings.—The only new building added to the list during the past year was "The Belilios School for Girls," which was completed and taken over by the Government in December 1893.

The total number of buildings of all descriptions in charge of the department is 129.

3. Extensive repairs or alterations have been executed in the following:-

 Government Civil Hospital, Women's Hospital, European Lunatic Asylum, Police Stations Nos. 1, 2, 3, 7, 8, Shaukiwan Police Station, Peak Signal Station and Officers' Quarters, Gunpowder Magazine Stonecutters' Island.

4. It is a matter of some regret that no practical steps beyond the preparation of plans and estimates have been taken to provide a suitable hill residence for the Governor, and that the Govern­ment have again to enter into a further lease of "Craigieburn" at an increased rental.

5. The Post Office, Treasury, Supreme Court and Crosby Store, though no longer equal to the demands of the Colony, still remain in the occupation of the departments concerned, and have been maintained and rendered, as far as possible, capable of meeting the increased accommodation required. It is, however, now becoming a generally recognised fact that the accommodation provided, specially in respect of the Post Office, is by no means adequate for the requirements of this Colony, and His Excellency the Governor recently appointed a Committee to enquire into the advisability of concen­trating the several Government departments in buildings on the New Praya Reclamation. Since my return in October last this project has received my careful attention, and general plans and approximate estimates have been submitted to the Committee. It is, therefore, to be hoped that before long this Colony may be provided with buildings more suitable for its requirements than the present ones, the erection of which dates back to its early days.

6. The expenditure under the various sub-heads has been as follows:—

i

Government House, Government Offices, SupremeCourt and Botanical Department

$ 3,819.16

ii

Police Station and Magistracy

5,591.95

ii

Gaol

1,338.88

iv

Educational ( Schools ),

510.87

v

Sanitary Board (Markets, &c.),

3,101.46

vi

Medical (Hospitals and Asylums), 

3,490.01

vii

Miscellaneous,

1309.36

viii

Harbour (Office, Quarters and Powder Magazine),

1574.38

ix

Typhoon Damages, 

608.95

 

Total

$21,345.02

The whole of the buildings have been kept in a satisfactory state of repair so far as their age and condition admit.

7. Some of the Police Stations notably No. 7, Queen's Road West, and No. 2, Praya East, will soon have to be replaced by new buildings and increased accommodation provided.

8.          A great many complaints have been received during the past year from the Superintendent of the Gaol respecting the Gaol buildings more especially in connection with the Superintendent's Quarters. In these, however, improvements have been effected and on the opening of the Gaol Extension it is hoped that the Gaol accommodation will be found equal to meet all reasonable demands for some years to come.

 

MAINTENANCE OF TELEGRAPHS AND TELEPHONES.

9.          The telegraph and telephone lines have been kept in good repair during the year though temporary interruptions occurred after the severe typhoons of September and October.

The wooden poles in the lines from Shaukiwan to Cape D'Aguilar, from No. 6 Police Station to Pokfulam, and partly from Shaukiwan to Stanley, have been replaced by iron ones, and "The Ex-change" at the Post Office has been removed to the Central Police Station.

10.        The Central Police Station is now in direct telephonic communication with Government House, Colonial Secretary's Office, Post Office, Public Works Office, Registrar General's Office, Treasury, Harbour Office, No. 2 Police Station, No. 5 Police Station, No. 6 Police Station, No. 8 Police Station, Peak Signal Station, Sanitary Board Office, and Motor House Garden Road, and by means of simple switches at these stations with Shaukiwan Police Station, Cape D'Aguilar, Stanley Police Station, Hunghom Police Station, Tsimshatsui Police Station, Kowloon Observatory, Yaumati Police Station, Pokfulam Police Station, Aberdeen Police Station, No. 7 Police Station, and Kennedy-town Police Station.

11.         The expenditure under this heading of account has been $5,285.88.

12.        Public Cemetery.—The Public Cemetery has been maintained without involving any exceptional expenditure. Owing to the prevalence of the bubonic plague it became necessary to open out a further terrace on the hill side to the west of the chapel, but fortunately few fatal cases occurred amongst the Europeans and only 4 interments were made.

13.        The typhoon of October 5th caused a good deal of damage amongst the trees and shrubs within the Cemetery which will take years to replace.

14.        The chapel which has undergone no extensive repairs for years now requires thoroughly overhauling and the work is in hand.

The expenditure under this heading of account has been $1,180.95.

MAINTENANCE OF PRAYA WALL AND PIERS.

15.        These have been maintained without any exceptional expenditure. A new pier of a temporary, character has been erected off Ice House Lane to provide accommodation for the traffic previously plying to and from Pedder's Wharf; pending the completion of that portion of the Praya Reclamation and the reconstruction of Pedder's Wharf.

The expenditure under this heading of account has been $572.57.

16.        Maintenance of Lighthouses.—The lighthouses have been maintained in a satisfactory state and with the exception of the Gap Rock Lighthouse without any exceptional expenditure.

17.        In the case of the Gap Rock Lighthouse after the experience of the typhoon in October 1893; various minor repairs and the fixing of iron shutters to some of the more exposed windows and the strengthening of the main doors were considered advisable. These works have been completed, and it is satisfactory to be able to state, though the exposed position of this lighthouse renders it a subject of considerable anxiety during the typhoon season, that during the typhoons that swept over this Colony during last September and October little damage was done. I regret, however, to state that after the consultations I had whilst on leave with Mr. T. MATTHEWS, engineer in chief to the Trinity House, I felt compelled to report to the Government that, in my opinion, if the lighthouse was not to be abandoned during the typhoon season it was necessary to re-build it, (C.O.D. -137/1894.)

18.        The repairs to the lantern and dioptric apparatus damaged in 1893 were completed in May last.

The expenditure under this heading of account has been $7,641.17.

19.        Dredging Foreshores.—The dredger has been mainly employed at Causeway Bay, and 35,026 cubic yards of material have been dredged. Five thousand four hundred and thirteen cubic yards of silt were removed from Bowrington Canal during the year.

20.        I regret to have to state that during the gale of the 25th September the dredger sank off Pottinger Street wharf in about ten feet of water, and she has now to undergo extensive repairs. A special report has been submitted on this subject, (C.S.O 2455/1894).

The expenditure under this heading of account has been $7,503.59.

21.        Miscellaneous Works.—The principal works carried out under this heading have been the following: —the reconstruction of the south end wall of the Magazine at Stonecutters' Island;. the general repairs, painting, alteration of drains, &c., of the Superintendent's Quarters, Victoria Gaol; the removal of a portion of the ramp on the east side of the Officers' Quarters, Victoria Gaol, and works in connection therewith; the construction of an enclosure wall around the Lunatic Asylums; and- the drainage of Kowloon Observatory, Yaumati Market, and of old Whitfield Police Station.

 

Forum: 

22. Maintenance of Roads and Bridges in Victoria.—The work under this heading has been principally confined to repairing main thoroughfares. Several of the streets and roads suffered during the heavy rains which accompanied the typhoon of October last, the retaining wall supporting Seymour Road on Inland Lot 509 collapsed and the road slipped away, a portion of the retaining wall on the north side of Upper Richmond Road was knocked down and carried away part of the roadway, a portion of the roadway in Glenealy was also carried away, a large landslip occurred on the south side of Morrison Hill Road opposite Morrison Hill, and numerous smaller slips throughout the City. The macadamised surface of Praya Central was considerably broken up by the heavy seas which broke over the Praya wall.

The expenditure under this heading of account has been $22,292.24.

23. Maintenance of Roads and Bridges out of Victoria.Thorough repairs have been executed to the new and old Aberdeen roads, the road from Deep Water Bay to Stanley, the road to Cape D'Aguilar, the road from Victoria Gap to Pokfulam, Wanchai Gap Road and Magazine Gap Road.

24. Several of the old timber bridges in the outside districts have been removed and replaced by bridges constructed of iron rails and concrete.

The expenditure under this heading of account has been $11,928.56.

25. Maintenance of Roads and Bridges in Kowloon.Until after the heavy gales of September and October last all the roads and streets in Kowloon were in good repair. The heavy rains which then occurred and the seas which broke over the Des Voeux Road caused considerable damage to the surface. Des Voeux Road has now been concreted for a width of twelve feet between East and Austin Roads

The expenditure under this heading of account has been $5,537.10.

26. Maintenance of Waterworks.The waterworks both in the City of Victoria and at the Peak have been maintained in a satisfactory condition without any exceptional expenditure.

27. It is, however, with regret that I have again to record that the consumption, (in this term I include legitimate use, misuse, and waste,) of water necessitated the introduction of the intermittent system from March 14th to May 16th.

The following tabular statement shows the hours of supply and the consumption during the period referred to :--

Month.

Date.

Hours of Supply.

Daily Consumption.

Consumption
per head per diem.

March, 

1st to 13th

Constant.

3,176,700

16.7

 

14th to 23rd

5 a.m. to          9 p.m.

2,739,200

14.4

March-April, 

24th to 4th      

6 a.m.    to      10 a.m.

1,927,000

10.1

April-May

5th to  8th

6 a.m. to         9 a.m.

1,555,600

8.2

May, 

9th to 16th

6 a.m. to          8 a.m.

1,287,200

6.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

28. The water in the reservoirs at Tytam and Pokfulam fell below overflow level on the 1st and 8th November respectively and reached its minimum level on the 15th and 16th May respectively.

The following is a comparative statement shelving the condition of the reservoirs and the date of the introduction of the intermittent system of supply during the dry seasons of 1891-1892, 1892-1893, 1893-1894 :—

 

  DATE ON WHICH WATER   QUANTITY OF WATER    
    Date of IN RESERVOIRS. Duration  
    introduction
PERIOD. Fell below over- Attained its mini- of intermittent supply of Rain-fall
flow level. mum level.       dry season.
      .        
       
  Tytam. Pokfulam. Tytam. Pokfulam.   Tytam. Pokfulam.    
1891-1892,  Nov 15 Nov 12 Ap. 20 Mar. 28 Not introduced     Nov. 10-April 19 10".13
(162 days)
1892-1893,  Oct. 6 Oct. 6 Ap. 28 Ap. 28 9th March 31,600,000 12,930,000 Sep. 22-April 27 9".365
(218 days)
1893-1894,  Nov 01 Nov 08 May 15 May 16 14th March 65,514,000 21,964,000 Oct. 19-May 16 5".035
(208 days)

 

The quantity of water filtered at the Tytam and Pokfulam filter beds during the past year has been 800,087,000 and 241,721,000 gallons respectively, making a total of 1,041,808,000 gallons equal to a consumption of 14.8 gallons per head per diem for a population of 193,000 (estimated population supplied). Deducting 50,677,000 gallons supplied by meter mainly for trade purposes reduces the consumption per head per diem for domestic purposes to 14 gallons nearly.

  1. In November last Messrs. A. W. and J. MILLAR were detailed to make house to house inspections of the water services and from that date 1,611 houses have been inspected, 491 of the services were found to be defective. This inspection had previously been carried out by Mr. DRAPER who had inspected 744 houses, 276 being found defective. These figures shew that there is still room for reducing the consumption of water by more careful attention to the maintenance of private services.
  2. Though I have on previous occasions and do again call the attention of occupiers of premises to the importance of checking as far as possible the misuse or abuse of water, by leaving taps running and using more than a reasonable quantity for the various domestic purposes for which water is required,

I most emphatically assert that a reasonable quantity of water is absolutely necessary for maintaining a sanitary condition in every city, town, village or dwelling, and to attempt to restrict such reasonable quantity would be a retrograde step in connection with the sanitation of this Colony.

  1. That misuse and abuse of water do to a large extent exist is evident from the following tabular statement sheaving the reduction in the consumption of water in various premises after the consumption had been ascertained by measurement and notice had been served on the occupiers to abate such excessive consumption under penalty of having the services disconnected from the waterwoKks.

Consumption of water per head per diem as ascertained under sections 10, 11, 12, 13 of Ordinance 16 of 1890.

 

  Consumption during Consumption after Consumption after Allowance,
First Test, service of notice, reconnection,
No. 1      16.5 13.8 7.0 5.7
No. 2   49.1 23.0 8.0 8
No. 3   23.0 19.5 14.1 8
No. 4      29.6 16.4 11.8 9.6
No. 5       42.5 70.8 9.3 11
No. 6   25.9 39.4 12.6 15
No. 7   30.4 16.0 ---- 10
No. 8   10.0 5.7 ---- 5
No. 9   16.4 6.35 ---- 5
No. 10   16.27 9.14 ---- 8.4
No. 11   27.0 14.3 ---- 13
No. 12   14.1 8.6 ---- 9

 

This statement further shews what power the occupiers of premises have to check the misuse and abuse of water and that their failure to exercise that power leads to the consumption of a much larger quantity of water than what is really necessary, burdening the Colony with heavy expenditure in the extension of reservoirs and filtration of water.

  1. Metering private services in order to check the domestic consumption was discontinued in March on the temporary introduction of the intermittent supply and was not recommenced until August.
  2. A total of 1,038 houses were metered during the past year, 441- were served with notices to abate excessive consumption and 171 were disconnected from the mains for failure to comply with such notice, care being taken that in every instance a supply could be obtained from street fountains within reasonable distance of the premises disconnected.
  3. The prescribed domestic quantity has now been fixed in accordance with section 13 of Ordinance 16 of 1890 for 1,752 houses, the allowance per head per diem varying from 5 gallons to 25 gallons.
  4. The Honourable E. R. BELILIOS at a meeting of the Legislative Council on December the 6th availed himself of the privilege conceded by His Excellency the Governor to make a speech on the occasion of asking a question. In that speech he advocated the general use of meters and made other statements in connection with the public water supply of this Colony. As it would have been out of order either for other members or myself to have attempted to express our non-concurrence with the opinions expressed by the honourable member, I take this opportunity of placing on record that though I believe the more general introduction of meters in the cases of detached or semi-detached houses might with advantage both to the consumer and the ratepayers of this Colony be permitted ; their general use throughout the native quarters of the City, where the bulk of the population reside in tenement houses and in many cases no less than three or more families occupy one floor, would not only be attended with a very large initial expense, but their maintenance and the prevention of their being tampered with or stolen, even if practicable, would be very costly.
  5. It has on more than one occasion been stated that if persons pay water rates they have a right to have water laid on to their premises, and if they have not the water laid on to their premises they should not be required to pay rates. I would briefly call attention to the fact that the water rates have not only to meet the expenditure of the supply of water for domestic purposes but also for fire service, flushing sewers, watering streets, &c., from which every resident more or less, derives some  benefit.

38.        Speaking generally, there is not the slightest doubt that from a sanitary point of view a constant supply of water should be laid on to or be readily obtainable for use in all premises.

39.        The full appreciation by the public of the necessity of checking abuse and misuse of water may take some time and though it is a very different matter introducing a constant supply into premises occupied by some 120,000 persons from what it is where the population is only 15,000 or 20,000, I would point to the very material reduction in the consumption of water that has taken place in recent years in cities and towns in England and express a hope that the public generally will before long shew that they are not behind the residents in those cities and towns in their endeavours to check unnecessary waste.

40.        The number of meters now in use is 188, and the quantity of filtered and unfiltered water supplied by meter has been 108,834,000 gallons and 71,856,000 gallons respectively.

41.        Applications for the construction of new services and the repair of existing ones have been received in 377 cases.

42.        Diagrams shewing the hourly consumption of water during periods of 24 hours are attached. Appendix D.

43.        Tabular statements giving information respecting the quantity of water in the reservoirs and that supplied to different districts during the year 1893 (which were omitted from the last report), and during the past year will be found in the appendices A., A.1, B., and C.

44.        Maintenance of Sewers.—The sewers and storm water drains have as far as practicable been maintained in a satisfactory condition during the past year without any exceptional expenditure.

45.        That complaints have been received of the smell arising from some of the storm water drains I am fully aware, but it must be borne in mind that so long as decomposing matter is discharged into sewers or drains, smells are inevitable and in order to avoid them it is absolutely necessary that not only the public sewers but also each and every house drain must be so arranged as to permit of their contents, being discharged before decomposition sets in, and further care should be taken not to store sewage up on private premises till it attains a state of decomposition and becomes so offensive that it can no longer be endured in close proximity to human habitations, and then discharge it down a drain.

Everybody, knows that any fluid that has a strong odour whether it be cabbage water, otto of roses, or anything else, will carry with it that odour wherever it goes, and if foul smells are not to be emitted from sewer ventilators it is of primary importance that the sewage discharged into the sewers should be fresh.

46.        Difficulty is at present experienced in preventing foul smells arising from the large storm water drains on account of their large capacity and the small flow in them during the dry season, and this has been somewhat aggravated during recent years by the dilatory manner in which the reconstruction of defective and insanitary house drains and their connection with the new sewerage system has been proceeded with. The whole of the house drains should be put in a thoroughly sanitary condition and connected with the new sewers without delay. It must be remembered the new system of sewers has been designed to be practically self-cleansing with the dry weather flow, but so long as these sewers are deprived of half the dry weather flow owing to the house drains being unconnected with them it cannot be a cause of surprise to any thoughtful person that the full advantage of the system should not be gained. And further dilatory procedure in the disconnecting of the house-drains from the storm water drains only aggravates the nuisance that has existed for years in connection with these drains by reducing the dry weather flow in them, and the polluting of the sub-soil by sewage escaping from many of them.

47.        It is hardly conceivable after the various reports and discussions that have been recorded that there should exist any such idea that the new system of sewers had diverted the storm water from the old-drains, and yet I find it recorded in the mail issue of the Daily Press, June 27th. 1894, that at a meeting of the Sanitary Board a member stated that the carrying out of the new system diverted storm waters of the Colony from the old fashioned storm water drains by which alone these drains were kept in order. It is interesting to note that in the opinion of this member the flow of storm water is necessary to keep these drains in order. This I have always contended is the case so long as they receive sewage, and their inevitable condition during the dry season of the year when there is practically no storm water must be insanitary. That condition is one of the main reasons why I have always advocated diverting the sewage but not the storm water from the old storm water drains.

48.        During the past year various questions relating to the introduction of the separate system and the advisability of having open drains throughout the greater part of the City have been again brought forward in most cases by anonymous writers.

One member of the Sanitary Board, however, stated that in his opinion no drains should be laid under the floor of any house and if it was not possible to adopt any other course than to bring it through the house the pipe should be laid above the floor. That gentleman, however, did not explain how the difficulty of many of the cookhouse floors being level with or below the remaining portion of the ground floor of the house was to be got over in view of the fact that water will not run up hill.

  1. It would only be a waste of time on my part to deal in detail with the various questions raised evidently by persons with no practical knowledge of the arrangement of Chinese houses, elementary hydraulics, or of what is meant by the separate system as being introduced into the City of Victoria and by persons who have not even taken the trouble to read the various published reports on the sanitation and drainage of Hongkong.

The expenditure under this heading of account has been $4,241.17.

 

  1. Street Lighting.-The lighting of the City by gas and electricity and of Kowloon Point and Yaumati by gas has been satisfactorily carried out by the Gas and Electric Companies under their respective contracts.

The total number of gas lamps within the City, exclusive of 15 in the cantonment, is 637, and the number of electric lights 75. The number of gas lamps in Kowloon Point and Yaumati is 84.

The expenditure under this heading of account has been $48,206.33.

  1. Maintenance of Public Recreation Ground.-The Recreation Ground in Happy Valley has been maintained in a satisfactory condition at a small cost, viz., $587.46.

  1. During the past year four land sales have taken place, the area sold being 948,350 square feet including about 20 acres situated in the Sookunpoo Valley which was purchased on the 27th December last for the purpose of constructing reservoirs. Premiums realized $64,605. Annual Crown rents $1,620.
  2. Extensions to existing lots of a total area of 78,652 square feet have been granted. Premiums realized $8,247.30. Annual Crown rents $683.98.
  3. Surveys have been made, boundaries corrected, and plans and particulars forwarded, to the Land Office for the issue of 33 new leases.

A complete survey of the Kowloon Peninsula has been completed and plotted to a scale of 1/2500. Enlarged plans of the villages have also been prepared.

Boundary stones have been fixed to define 15 lots.

  1. As will be seen from the following tabular statements 1,543 squatter's licenses have been issued, the fees for which amount to $5,498.13.

(Table not converted)

  1. There is, I regret to say, $60.78 outstanding which it has been found impossible at present to collect though it is satisfactory to note that the arrears for the past year are considerably less than in previous years and active steps are being taken to secure their immediate payment.

A sum of $587.54 has been collected in respect of arrears prior to1894, leaving $38.16 still to be collected.

  1. Plans and particulars have been forwarded to the Land Office for the issue of leases in respect of the claims reported on by the Squatters' hoard in the villages of Wongnaichung, Aberdeen, Pokfulam, Ah Kung Ngam, Shaukiwan district, Tai Hang, and Kai Lung Wan. Those in respect of the villages, of Wongnaichung, Aberdeen and Pokfulam were completed prior to 1894.

Owing to the settlement of the above claims the majority of the owners of property in those vil­lages are now on the Treasury Rent Roll.

  1. During the past year 14 plans for the erection of 86 European dwellings, 19 plans for the erection of 199 Chinese dwellings, besides 209 plans for miscellaneous structures, have been deposited under Section 69 of Ordinance 15 of 1889.
  2. Seventy-four certificates have been issued under Section 53 of Ordinance 15 of 1889.
  3. Permission has been granted to erect 18 verandahs, and 12 piers over Crown Land.
  4. Notices have been issued to remove or repair dangerous structures in 54 instances, and 784 miscellaneous notices and permits have been issued.
  5. Permits have been issued for the erection and repair of 34 monuments and enclosures in the colonial cemetery, the fees for which amount to $8.16
  6. All plans-deposited have been duly registered and numbered and the registers are complete up to date.

 

64.        Central Market.—Considerable progress has been made towards, the completion of this building and there now remains little to be done besides the completion of the approaches and erecting a few stalls and fittings.

65.        Slaughter-house, Pig and Sheep Depots.—(C.S.O.'s 385/1890 and 2990/1892). This work has been completed. The buildings consist on the uppermost or western terrace of blocks Nos. 1, 2 and 3. Block No. 1 containing cattle lairs with a floor space of 1,508 square feet, cubic space of 15,529 accommodating 68 head. Cattle Slaughter-house with a floor area of 2,099 square feet. Sheep lairs with a floor space of 677 square feet, cubic space of 12,529 accommodating 100 head. The Sheep Indian and Jewish- Slaughter-houses having floor areas of 998 square feet, 325 square feet and 325 square feet respectively.

Block No. 2 being a cooling-house with a floor area of 2,647 square feet and cubic capacity of 48,980 cubic feet. Overhead travellers are fitted in connection with this building and  the Cattle Slaughter-house to facilitate the conveyance of carcasses.

Block- No. 3 consists of Pig Slaughter-house with a floor area of 2,275 square feet, and Pig lair with a floor area of 3,166 square feet and a cubic capacity of 44,324 cubic feet accommodating 380 pigs. The Pig Slaughter-house is provided with scalders to which hot water is laid on.

On this terrace are also situated out-buildings and offices for sub-inspectors.

On the second terrace are situated three sheds having a combined floor area of 18,290 square feet and a cubic capacity of 274,365 cubic feet providing accommodation for 600 sheep and 1,600 pigs, and also coolie quarters to accommodate 50 coolies.

The sheep and pig sheds and lairs are divided into pens by iron railings and gates. Suitable iron troughs are provided with water laid on in each pen. The fittings throughout are as far as practicable of iron.

All the floors are of concrete rendered with cement, and all yards and other open spaces  are concreted.

On the third terrace adjoining the entrance only an office and coolie quarters have been constructed leaving the remainder available for erecting two more sheds having a total floor area of 5,757 square feet and a cubic capacity of 83,476 cubic feet providing further accommodation when required for 1,446 head of sheep or pigs.

 66.     The whole of the buildings have been constructed of red Canton brick with granite stone dressings.

   The entire area is enclosed with an iron railing.      .

67.        The cost of preparing the terraces on the hill side which necessitated heavy retaining Walls was $29,000, and that of erecting buildings, fittings, &c., and all other works has been $58,933, making a total of $87,933.

68.        An overseer's house consisting of three rooms with necessary bath room and out-building accommodation has been erected on the hill side above the depot. The entire area occupied by the premises including buildings, roads, &c., is 93,247 square feet.

69.        The premises were handed over to the Sanitary Board on the 31st December last.

70. Gaol Extension.----Very good progress has been made with this work, the walls of one block are nearly ready to receive the roof and those of the second are 16 feet above ground level.

71.        Kowloon New Roads, (C.S.O. -397/1892)—These have been completed, and the erection of buildings on lots abutting on Granville and Carnarvon Roads has been commenced.

72.        New Water Mains.—A small expenditure has been incurred under this heading in extensions necessary to meet the requirements of the owners of new premises.

73.        Sewerage of Victoria.--During the past year, work was commenced in the Eastern Districts of the City, and, with the exception of the intercepting syphons proposed to be ultimately constructed, is drawing near completion.

Four miles of main sewers, varying in size from 15 to 6 inches in diameter, have been laid, - and 93 manholes have been constructed.

74.        The outfall of the sewers in District 3 West has been completed and now discharges into deep water. That for District 2 West has been extended across the reclamation.

75.        There now exist within the City nearly 30 miles of sewers recently constructed in accordance with the scheme approved in 1889.

76.        Water Supply, Kowloon Peninsula, (C.S.O. 1574/1892)—Considerable progress has been made with this work. The three wells have been sunk and darns completed in two valleys Nos. 1 and 3 and the work in valley No. 2 is proceeding.

Eight and three-fourths miles of mains from 7 inch to 3 inch diameter have been laid.

The service reservoirs at Yaumati and Hunghom have been completed and the clear water tank at Yaumati is well advanced.

The necessary drawings and specifications have been prepared for the erection of the pumping station and adjoining buildings.  -

The pumping machinery and boilers have arrived and it is anticipated that during the present year water under adequate pressure will be laid on to Yaumati, Kowloon Point and Hunghom.

77. Extension of McDonnell and Austin Roads, Kowloon, (C.S.O. 1575/1893).—This work has not proceeded very satisfactorily and a good deal of trouble has been experienced with the contractor. It is, however, now drawing near completion.

78.        Erection of the Queen's Statue, (C.S.O. 2650/1894) —A contract has been entered into for the preparation of the foundations for the erection of the Queen's Statue in commemoration of the Jubilee of Her Most Gracious Majesty Queen VICTORIA, and active operations on the site near the City Hall  will shortly be commenced.

79.        Extension of Tytam Waterworks, (C.S.O. 3000/1894)—A contract has been entered into for raising the water level in the Tytam reservoir 10 feet, by which it is hoped that an additional storage capacity of 100,000,000 gallons will be obtained. The work was commenced just before the close of the year, plans being approved by the Public Works Committee 28th November, 1894, and adopted by the Legislative Council 6th December, 1894.

80.        Kowloon Cattle Depot, (C.S.O. I-2552/1892)—Married Quarters Central Police Station, (C.S.O. 1942/1894)—Signalling Station Kowloon, (C.S.O. 2470/1893)—Village Water, Drainage and Sewerage Works. The above works appear in the estimates for this year, and it is hoped that the first three will be commenced at an early date.

81.        Water and Drainage Works are required in many of the villages, which will include the formation of streets, roads, and efficient drainage. Some of the villages have, during recent years grown considerably, and contain buildings of a substantial character. Several improvements during the last two years have been effected in the alignment and position of buildings, and the time has arrived when it is absolutely necessary that more attention should be paid to the formation and drainage of the streets and to the public water supply in these localities for the protection of the health of the residents.

82.        Approximate plans and estimates have been prepared for the erection of new Government Offices, and doubtless considering the much needed provision of improved accommodation the Legislative Council will at an early date be asked to vote the money necessary to meet the expenditure on these buildings.

83.        During the past year the progress of the public works in hand and the preparation of the necessary plans, &c. for proceeding with others of a more or less urgent nature have been naturally impeded by the prevalence of the bubonic plague.

An account of the terrible ravages made by this disease and the various precautions it will in the future be necessary to take to prevent it again assuming an epidemic form does not come within the scope of this report.

During the months of May, June and July, nearly the whole of the Public Works staff was more or less engaged in grappling with the difficulties experienced in stamping the disease out, erecting temporary hospitals, &c., and disposing of the remains of the dead.

84.        On my return to the Colony last October I found an Ordinance had just been passed resuming a large portion of Taipingshan. As this Ordinance came almost immediately into force and apparently no definite scheme for arriving at the amount of compensation to be offered by the Government to the owners of property nor for the future disposal of the property resumed had been prepared, these matters obtained my earliest attention and have engaged a large proportion of my time since my return.

85.        As the question of compensation is referred to a Board of Arbitrators I abstain from making any remarks on the subject, but I wish to place it on record that I am informed that my locum towns in the office of Director of Public Works was neither consulted by the Government, at the time the Bill was drafted, on the provisions of the Ordinance nor on the necessity of resuming the whole of the area included within its operation.

86.        The special works arising out of the epidemic of bubonic plague carried out under the supervision of this department were the preparation of plague cemeteries at Happy Valley, Kennedytown and Sandy Bay, Matshed Hospitals at Kennedytown, Temporary Cattle Depot at Kennedytown, Walling in portions of the native quarter of the City since resumed by Government. The services of Mr. CROOK, Executive Engineer, and Mr. DOUGHERTY, Overseer, were placed at the disposal of the Sanitary Board Permanent Committee.

87.        The expenditure incurred on work carried out under the supervision of this department is returned in appendix under heading plague expenditure.

88.        Expenditure.—The expenditure on account of Establishment and Annually Recurrent Works will be found in Appendix E, and that on account of Extraordinary Public Works in Appendix F.

89.        Section No. 1, Eastern portion.—The weighting of the rubble stone foundations was completed on the 16th May. The setting of the second course of concrete blocks was commenced on the 5th May and completed on the 27th September, except two landings (which had to be specially made) for the bottom of the landing steps, and these were completed during the low tides of the 14th and 15th December.

On the 21st February, a Contract No. 18/1894 was made with TSANG KENG for the completion of the upper portion of the sea wall above the concrete blocks, construction of storm water drains, filling in and reclaiming the land, forming, channelling and concreting the footpaths, &c.;  2,629 cubic yards of rubble stone have been laid (hand packed) in embankment and backing of sea wall, 37,338 cubic yards of earth filled in and rammed in reclamation, 19,920 cubic feet of granite ashlar set in cement mortar in sea wall and storm water drains, 308 cubic yards of Portland cement concrete backing of sea wall and 382 cubic yards of lime concrete backing of masonry of storm water drains, &c., have been deposited in place ; fairly good progress has been made on this contract.

Filling below Datum, 756 cubic yards of earth has been deposited by Hopper Barges.

90.        Section No. 2.--The works under contract No. 13/1892 of July 1892, for the construction of the upper portion of the sea wall above the concrete blocks, construction of storm water drains, filling in and reclaiming the land, forming, channelling and concreting the footpaths, &c. The works under this contract were suspended or nearly so for about four months on account of the plague, the workmen having run away as soon as the rubbish from the infected houses in Taipingshan was brought on to the reclaimed land to be burnt, and, during the remaining portion of the year, they were carried on by the contractor in a dilatory and unsatisfactory manner ; the work executed being 829 Cubic yards rubble stone (hand packed) backing of sea wall and embankment, 29,411 cubic yards of earth filled in and rammed, 26,899 cubic feet granite ashlar set in cement mortar, 789 cubic yards of Portland cement and lime concrete, 6,640 superficial feet granite side channels and curbs, 13,650 superficial feet lime concrete on footpath, 29 gullies with outlet pipes, &c., fixed complete.

91.        The storm water drain in Queen's Road and Centre Street, contract No. 14/1892, was after many delays and difficulties completed on the 31st May, about 15 months after the contract time. The work under this contract was taken much below its real value, consequently the work was carried on in dilatory and unsatisfactory manner, the contractor losing the little money he had, absconded in February, the contract was then transferred to TSANG KENG and finally completed by him on the 2nd June, 1894.

92.        Section No. 3.—Very little progress has been made on this section on account of the time required for weighting and consolidating the rubble stone foundations. The weighting of the rubble stone foundations was commenced on the 7th. April and continued to the end of the year, during which time 951 lineal feet have been consolidated.

93.        The filling and reclaiming the land below Datum is now completed as high as practicable, this work being done departmentally by Hopper Barges and spoil from Dredger, 21,522 cubic yards of earth and mud having been deposited therein during the year.

94.        The upper surface of the rubble stone foundations of storm water drains, (C.S.O. 1885/1894) was trimmed, levelled and covered with lime concrete during the low tides of July and August, 113 cubic yards of lime concrete and 662 cubic yards of rubble stone being used for that purpose.

95.        Sections Nos. 6 and 7, Eastern and Western portion. A contract No. 20/1894- was entered into with TSANG KENG on the 11th April last, for the construction of the rubble stone foundations of sea wall, (968 lineal feet), landing piers, storm water drains, embankment, &c. ; and, on the 29th April, he commenced to drive and fix the guide piles, &c., for marking out the lines of the proposed foundations, and, for that purpose, 49 piles containing about 5,150 cubic feet of timber had to be driven, and 1,390 cubic feet of timber fixed in walings, braces, &c. ; the whole being completed on the 30th June. During the months of June, July and August, comparatively very little work was done on this contract ; the requisite number of coolies and junks could not be obtained on account of the plague, consequently only 95,068 cubic yards of rubble stone have been deposited in the foundations, instead of about 130,000 cubic yards, the upper surface of the foundations will, therefore, have to be trimmed and levelled by divers to allow the setting of the first course of concrete blocks being commenced during the first low tides of May 1895.

96.        Filling and reclaiming the land below Datum, 61,144 cubic yards of earth has been deposited by Hopper Barges, and 10,556 cubic yards of mud and sand have been deposited by junks from Dredger.

97.        The temporary wharf opposite Ice House Street, contract No.15/1892 was after many delays and difficulties completed and opened to traffic on the 27th June. The timber required in its construction having been lost in the wreck of the Penshaw on a voyage from Manila to Hongkong on the 21st February, 1893, and a fresh supply had to be ordered by CHAN A TONG, the Contractor.

98.        Section No. 7, Eastern portion, contract No. 10/1891. The completion of the upper portion of Sea Wall and Reclamation on a length of 1,130 feet, the work under this contract was suspended for about nine months, to allow the sewer pipes, gas and water mains being laid, and the ground to settle and consolidate during the heavy rains of summer, the work being resumed in November 1893, and completed on the 18th September, 1894.

The following work was done during the year, viz.:-4,180 cubic yards of earth supplied for filing and levelling the roads, land, &c ; 1,540 lineal feet granite curbs set ; 1,070 lineal feet granite side channels, 3 feet wide, and 2,570 lineal beet, 2'. 6" wide, were laid ; 208,500 superficial feet lime concrete, 6" deep, laid, watered and rolled on roads ; 63,900 superficial feet lime concrete, 4' thick, laid, watered and rolled on footpaths ; 27,500 superficial feet lime concrete laid under curbs and channels ; and 3,7:50 superficial feet granite paving taken up, re-squared, and re-laid in cement mortar.

99.        Plant.—The whole of the plant has been maintained in a satisfactory state of repair without involving any extraordinary expenditure The steam travelling crane has been laid up during the year, as it was found that the concrete blocks could be set quicker and at a much less cost by manual labour, using a derrick and winch, than by steam crane ; and the block making having been suspended, except the making of 36 special and face blocks, which were made on the Praya and removed by the floating crane.

100.      Work executed.—In appendix G will be found a statement shewing generally the work executed in the more important items up to the 31st December, 1893, and during the past year.

101.       Accounts.—In appendix H will be found a statement of accounts. Outstanding liabilities amount to about $46,800 mainly due to the monies retained pending the completion of contracts in hand.