Industrial heritage in Hong Kong | Gwulo: Old Hong Kong

Industrial heritage in Hong Kong

I am putting together a list of past industrial sites (and some present ones) in Hong Kong, with links to the relevant Gwulo pages (or if there is no dedicated Gwulo page for them yet, Public Works Department Annual Reports). There is already a very comprehensive list on the Industrial History of Hong Kong website - my list is just trying to group together relevant Gwulo pages and PWD sources.  For now, I have not included sites such as godowns, wharves, piers, electricity substations, etc as they are so numerous that it would be a time-consuming task. Most of the sites listed below have been demolished, but a handful remain, and are identified as 'still in use'. There may be some duplicate sites, which I hope to fix in time. Anyone is very welcome to contribute to this list via the comments.

Industrial Heritage is defined as "the remains of industrial culture which are of historical, technological, social, architectural or scientific value. These remains consist of buildings and machinery, workshops, mills and factories, mines and sites for processing and refining, warehouses and stores, places where energy is generated, transmitted and used, transport and all its infrastructure, as well as places used for social activities related to industry such as housing, religious worship or education." (The Nizhny Tagil Charter on Industrial Heritage, produced by the International Committee for the Conservation of Industrial Heritage in 2003). 



Wing On Shing Shipyard, Cheung Sha Wan:

Ah King Boatyard (1st location), Wanchai:

Ah King Boatyard (2nd location), Causeway Bay:

Ah King Boatyard (3rd location), Causeway Bay:

George Fenwick & Co. Shipyard, Queen's Road East/Ship Street area, Wanchai:

Taikoo (Butterfield & Swire) Dockyard, Quarry Bay (see 1901 Public Works Report):  

A. Macdonald & Co. Shipyard, Whitty Street/Queen's Road West area, West Point:  

Yau Wing Shipyard, Yau Tong:

Junk Shipyard, Aberdeen:

Hong Kong & Whampoa Dock Co. (Kowloon Docks/Whampoa Dock), Hok Yuen, Hung Hom:

W.S. Bailey & Co. Shipyard, K.M.L. 52, K.M.L. 67 and K.I.L. 1150, To Kwa Wan:

American Marine/Kong & Halvorsen Marine & Engineering Company Shipyard, Hang Hau/Tseung Kwan O: 


Power stations/Gas works/Oil Storage

Hong Kong Electric Power Station, I.L. 1210, Star Street, Wanchai: (1st location, 1890-1919? see 1890 PWR); the 'Central Station' was situated in Wing Fung Street (see 1891 PWR)

Hong Kong Electric Power Station, M.L. 321, North Point: (2nd location, 1913/1919-1978) 

Hong Kong Electric Power Station, Ap Lei Chau: (3rd location)

Hong Kong Electric Power Station, Lamma Island (still in use): (4th location)

CLP Power Station, H.H.I.L. 225 & H.H.I.L. 226, Chatham Road, Hung Hom (and power house on K.M.L. 93, Hung Hom, 1919?): (1st location)

CLP Hok Yuen Power Station, Kowloon Bay: (2nd location)

Hong Kong Tramways Power Station, Bowrington Canal:

HK China Gas Co. gas works and tar tanks (adjacent to Kowloon City ferry pier), Ma Tau Kok: (1st location) (see also 1935 PWR)

Ma Tau Kok Gas Works (2nd & current location) [1956- ]

HK & China Gas Co. gas works, Shek Tong Tsui (see 1934 PWR - major accident due to explosion) (including gas holder on I.L. 834, Queen's Road West - see 1910 PWR): 

HK & China Gas Co. gas holder, Kennedy Town [1935-????] (see also see 1935 PWR): 

Gas works, K.I.L. 395, Jordan Rd, Kowloon (extension added in 1926, see PWR) (see also 1920 & 1956 Kowloon Maps):

Quarry Bay Gas Holder [c.1969-1986]:

Wanchai Gas Holder [????-????]:

Acetylene gas factory and godown, I.L. 2082, Kennedy Town (see 1915 PWR)

Aberdeen Gas Holder [1981- ]:

Shell LPG, Tsing Yi: 

Coal/briquette works, K.M.L. 35 corner of Canton Rd & Jordan Rd (see 1896 Kowloon map) (same site subsequently used for 4 large oil storage tanks & petrol tanks - see 1945 Kowloon Map, where they are marked as 'destroyed') 

12+ large kerosene/oil storage tanks (Standard Oil Co.) and oil godowns, N.K.M.L. 2 and N.K.I.L. 190 & 191, Lai Chi Kok (see 1906/07, 1914, 1918, 1921 and 1923 PWRs; also 1957 Kowloon map)

Benzene storage tank (Asiatic Petroleum Co.) on M.L. 277 & 281, North Point (see 1921 & 1924 PWRs)

Fuel oil tank (500 tonnes) on I.L. 2278, North Point (completed 1924-26, see PWR)

3+ large fuel oil storage tanks, I.L. 2273, North Point (see 1921, 1924/25, 1929 PWRs)

Kerosene tank (4,000 tonnes), I.L. 1366, North Point (completed 1926, see PWR) [the earliest mention of a kerosene depot in North Point is in the 1897 PWR, but exact location not given]

Oil refinery, K.M.L. 47, Canton Road (completed 1926, see PWR)

Coal Godown and Machinery House, S.M.L. 1, Sai Wan Ho (see 1915 PWR)

Coaling basin, N.K.M.L. 8 (Kailan Mining Administration) (constructed 1923/24, see PWR)

Waste heat boilers on M.L. 190 and 191, West Point (constructed 1925, see PWR)

Wood oil refining plant, with boiler house, K.M.L. 47, Yaumatei (completed 1925, see PWR)

Benzene/Lubricating oil godown, K.M.L. 32, Kremer Street, Tai Kok Tsui (see 1906, 1916 & 1927 PWRs) (possibly same site as "a large tank installation for the storage of 6,000 tons of kerosene oil in bulk at Tai-kok-tsui and [...] it is already proposed to make a considerable addition to the storage capacity of the depot" - see 1894 PWR)

Texaco oil depot, Tsuen Wan (1936-1988):

Oil storage, near lighthouse, Green Island (see 1905 PWR)

Tar macadam depot, Middle Road, Kowloon (see 1920 Kowloon map) (since 1932, the site of Middle Road Children's Playground)


Mining sites

Ma On Shan Iron Ore Mine:

Yan Hing Lead Mine, New Territories:

Lin Ma Hang Lead Mine, Sha Tau Kok, New Territories:

West Brother Island Graphite Mine:

Needle Hill Tungsten Mine:

Tungsten Mine near Sha Lo Wan, Lantau Island:

Tai Yu Shan Silver Mine, Mui Wo:

Manganese mine, near Mo Tat Wan, Lamma Island:


Brickworks and cement works

Brick works, Deep Water Bay:

Brick works, Aberdeen (see 1908 PWR) (possibly same as above?)

Green Island Cement Works, K.M.L. 40, Hung Hom: (see 1906 & 1922 PWRs) [1897 PWR refers to the construction of a new "cement factory at Kowloon" - exact location not given]


Ceramics/tile factories

C.E. Warren & Co. tile factory, Sharp Street, Causeway Bay (1st location):

C.E. Warren & Co. tile factory, Warren Street, Tai Hang/Causeway Bay (2nd location, from 1909):



Smelting factory, N.K.I.L. 48, Sham Shui Po (see 1917 PWR)

Foundry, K.I.L. 1410, 1411 and 1412, Tai Kok Tsui (see 1922 PWR)

Steel factory, N.K.I.L. 521 Section A., "new road near Castle Peak Road" (see 1929 PWR)

C.E. Warren & Co. hardware factory, 100-108 Wanchai Road (from 1909) (see comments below)

Hop Fung Iron Works Ltd, Tong Yang San Tsuen, Yuen Long (


Glass factories

Glass factory, Tai Wan, Kowloon Bay (completed 1913; see PWR)

Glass factory, K.I.L. ?652, Kowloon (see 1896 Kowloon map)

Glass factory, I.L. 1936, North Point (built 1913/14; see PWR)

Glass factory, I.L. 1893, Tung Lo Wan (built 1913/14; see PWR)

Glass factory and foundry, K.I.L. 894, Pine Street (destroyed by fire in 1925, see PWR)

Glass factory, K.M.L. 48, Mong Kok Tsui (see 1922 PWR)

Glass factory, S.I.L. 525, Shau Kei Wan East (see 1929 PWR)

Glass factory (probably Hong Kong & Macao Glass Manufacturing Co. Ltd), I.L. 905, Kennedy Town: 


Sawmills/Paper manufacturing/Printing works

Aberdeen Paper Mills: (an area of 382,000 square feet  was sold to the Mill in 1893 for a reservoir: see 1893 PWR)

Sawmill and woodworking shop, N.K.I.L. 329, Hai Tan Street, Shamshuipo (completed 1924, see PWR)

Commercial Press Ltd. printing and book binding factory, Shaukiwan Road (see 1934 PWR)

Book factory, Pak Tai Street (see 1934 PWR)

Tungar Printing Press, North Point (see 1935 PWR)


Fabric mills

Cotton mills (Hong Kong Cotton Spinning, Weaving & Dyeing Co.), I.L. 1018, Cotton Path, Caroline Hill/So Kon Po (1898-1914): (see 1897 PWR; site converted in ca. 1916 for use as convent school, see 1916 PWR) 

Nan Yang Cotton Mill, Ma Tau Kok (see 1956 Kowloon Map)

Wyler Textiles Mill, Ma Tau Kok (see 1956 Kowloon Map)

Weaving factory, K.I.L. 571, Saigon Street, Kowloon (see 1910 PWR)


Paint/dye factories

Duro Paint Factory, Quarry Bay (1st location):

Duro Paint Factory, North Point (2nd location):

Paint factory, Arran Street (see 1934 PWR)

Paint factory, Canton Road (see 1934 PWR)

National Lacquer & Paint Products Factory, I.L. 3536, North Point:

Vermilion factory, K.I.L. 1218, Portland Street. Mong Kok Tsui (see 1914 PWR)

Vermilion factory, K.I.L. 1956, 1957, 1965 & 1966, Pak Tai Street, Ma Tau Kok (constructed 1927/28, see PWR)

Vermilion factory, Lot 1065, S.D. 3, Lei Yue Mun (constructed 1927/28, see PWR)

Vermilion factory, Tsuen Wan I.L. 4, Tsuen Wan (constructed 1927/28, see PWR) 

Vermilion factory, I.L. 2258, North Point (see 1918 PWR)

Dyeworks on Crown Land near S.I.L. 527, Sai Wan Ho (constructed 1927/28, see PWR)

Dyeworks, Lot 7162, S.D. 1, Sec. A, Chuk Un (constructed 1927/28, see PWR)

Dyeworks, Lot 5784, S.D. 1, Kowloon City (constructed 1927/28, see PWR)

Dyeworks, Lots 5779 and 5782, S.D. 1, Kowloon City (constructed 1927/28, see PWR)


Food/beverage manufacturing

Hong Kong Milling Co. (Rennie's Flour Mills), Junk Bay: (see also 1905 PWR)

Kowloon Dairy, Kowloon:

Dairy Farm, Pokfulam:

Dairy Farm Co. depot, I.L. 1280,  Wyndham Street (see 1913 PWR)

Taikoo Sugar Refinery (including refinery, main power house, coal silo, kiln house etc.), Q.B.M.L. 1, Quarry Bay: (800,000 square feet sold to Taikoo for the purpose of constructing a reservoir in 1893: see PWR).

China Sugar Refinery/Smith, Wahee & Co, Cleveland Street, Causeway Bay.: 

Bowrington Sugar Refinery, Bowrington (Causeway Bay) (see 1890 PWR) (possibly same as China Sugar Refinery, above)

Sugar factory, Canton Road (see 1915 PWR)

Sugar factory, I.L. 905, Kennedy Town (see 1915 PWR)

Sugar factory, K.M.L. 48. R.P., Pitt Street, Mong Kok Tsui (constructed 1927/28, see PWR)

Sugar factory, K.M.L. 56, Mong Kok Tsui (constructed 1916, see PWR)

Sugar factory, N.K.I.L. 995, 996, 997 & 975, Hai Tan Street, Sham Shui Po (see 1929 PWR)

Sugar boiling sheds, K.M.L. 77, Chung Hing Street. Fuk Tsun Heun (constructed 1927/28, see PWR)

Wong Wing Kee Preserved Fruit Factory, Cheung Chau:

Preserved fruit factory, K.I.L. 2088, Fuk Tsun Street, Tai Kok Tsui (constructed 1927/28, see PWR)

Ginger factory, K.I.L. 49, corner Temple St/Nanking St, Kowloon (see 1896 & 1920 Kowloon Maps)

Ginger factories, K.I.L. 629 & K.I.L. 631, near Station St, Yaumatei, Kowloon (see 1896 map)

Soy factory, M.L. 239, Kennedy Town (see 1915 PWR)

Soy factory, Ma Lung Kong (see 1906 PWR)

Soy factory, Shau Kei Wan (see 1898 PWR)

Ground nut oil factory, N.K.I.L. 1023 & 1024, Hai Tan Street, Sham Shui Po (constructed 1927/28, see PWR)

Oriental Brewery/HK Ice Company, N.K.M.L. 3, Lai Chi Kok (see 1907 PWR):

H.K. Brewery/San Miguel Brewery, Sham Tseng: 

Brewery, N.K.I.L. 60, Cheung Sha Wan (see 1915 PWR)

Chinese wine factory, A.I.L. 72, Aberdeen (completed 1924, see PWR)

A.S. Watson & Co. Aerated Water Factory, North Point:

Ice Works (HK Ice Co./Jardine, Matheson & Co./Dairy Farm), Causeway Bay: 


Tobacco factories

British-American Tobacco Factory, Gloucester Road, Causeway Bay: (see also 1935 PWR)

Orient Tobacco Factory, I.L. 1203, corner Coronation [Nathan] Rd & Dundas St, Yau Ma Tei: (see 1908 & 1914 PWRs)

Tobacco factory, I.L. 742 & 743, Wanchai Road (see 1917/18 PWR)

Cigarette factory, I.L. 743, Wanchai Road (see 1914 PWR)

Cigarette factory, I.L. 1315, Bowrington (see 1919 PWR) 


Slaughterhouses and tanneries

Slaughterhouse, Hung Hom [until 1908]

Cattle, sheep & pig depot/slaughterhouse [?K.I.L. 640 & 1267?], Ma Tau Kok: (still in use: constructed 1908, in use until 1999; now converted to artists' village)

Slaughterhouse (see 1892 PWR) and adjacent cattle depot, Kowloon (see 1893 PWR) [exact location not clear]

WG Humphreys & Co. Tannery, Ma Tau Kok

Tannery located at K.I.L. 640, Ma Tau Kok [possibly WG Humphreys?] (see 1920 Kowloon Map)

Large tannery on K.I.L. 1445, Ma Tau Kok (completed 1925, see PWR) (same as WG Humphreys?)

Smithfield cattle depot & slaughterhouse, Kennedy Town:

Pig & sheep depot & slaughterhouse, Kennedy Town (located to the southwest of the Kennedy Town Cattle Depot, built ca 1892:  detailed account in 1894 PWR):

Slaughterhouse, Aberdeen (see 1911 PWR) (next to market)

Tai Hing slaughterhouse, Lantau Island:

Rendering factory, K.I.L. 1266, Ma Tau Kok (see 1911 PWR)

Rendering factory, I.L.1883, Kennedy Town (see 1911 PWR)

4 rendering/lard factories, M.L. 239 (Belchers Street) and I.L. 2169, Kennedy Town (see 1912, 1917 & 1918 PWRs)

Rendering/lard factory, I.L. 2415, Kennedy Town (see 1929 PWR)


Soap works

Blackhead's Soap and Soda Factory, S.M.L. 1, Shaukeiwan:

Soap factory, Lot 7245, Kowloon City (see 1915 PWR)


Rope works

Rope works, I.L. 906, Smithfield Street, Kennedy Town:

Rope works, K.I.L. 1094, Ma Tau Kok (completed 1926, see PWR)


Gunpowder/munitions depots

Gunpowder depot, north-east side of Green Island (see 1904 PWR & detailed account in 1905 PWR) (operating from 1906)

Gunpowder depot, Stonecutters' Island (closed in 1905/06 - see 1890 & 1905/06 PWRs)

Munitions depot, Shau Kei Wan/A Kung Ngam:

Munitions depot, Aberdeen:



Refuse incinerator and wash house, Q.B.I.L. 8, Quarry Bay (completed 1927, see PWR) 

Incinerator, Pak Mong Village, Lantau Island:


Landfill sites

Refuse dump, Cheung Sha Wan (see 1922/23 PWR) - received 11,000 tonnes of rubbish in 1922



Tien Chu Chemical Industries (HK) Ltd, Ma Tau Kok/To Kwa Wan (est. 1937) (see 1956 Kowloon Map)

Oil-cake factory, N.K.I.L. 26, Sham Shui Po (see 1921 PWR) 

Dry cleaning works, I.L. 1891, Kennedy Town (see 1912 PWR)

Rubber factory, S.I.L. 104, Main Street, Shau Kei Wan (see 1928/29 PWRs)

(W.) Robinson Piano Co. factory (from 1890s), 94a Wanchai Road, Wanchai

Tsang Fook Piano Co. factory (also sometimes trading as Morrisons), old lot number I.L. 2845 (changed in 1936 to new lot number 480), King's Road:

Hat factory, N.K.I.L. 468, Ma Tau Wei (see 1926 PWR)

Disinfecting Station, Yau Ma Tei, Kowloon (see 1905 PWR) [possible medical purpose?]

Lead pencil factory, Castle Peak Road (see 1934 PWR)

Match factory, Hung Hom (see 1894, 1899 PWRs)




Hi Liz,

Thanks for bringing these together. A suggestion is to work through this by category, as going for everything at once is a bit daunting. The list can then be displayed split by category too.

eg you've got some power stations at the bottom of the list. Here are a few more:

Regards, David

Thanks David, that's an excellent suggestion. Will do. Cheers, Liz

Liz, there here are a few additions:

Ma Tau Kok Gas Works (2nd & current location) [1956- ]

Wanchai Gasometer [????-????]

Quarry Bay Gas Holder [c.1969-1986]

Aberdeen Gas Holder [1981- ]

Gas works, K.I.L. 395, Jordan Rd, Kowloon

Gas holder, I.L. 834, Queen's Road West (see 1910 PWR) belongs to Gas Works, Shek Tong Tsui [1864-c.1960]

Gasometer (Hong Kong & China Gas Co.), Smithfield (see 1935 PWR) = Kennedy Town Gasometer [1935-????]

Regards, Klaus

Thanks Klaus, that's very helpful. I will add those to the list. I wasn't too sure what the difference was between gas holders and gasometers, but it seems they are basically the same thing (any gas engineers out there can correct me if I'm wrong). So I will change all to gas holders. Cheers, Liz

Any thread linking to info regarding the caption in this website?

Hi, as far as I know there is no information on the Sha Lo Wan mine here on Gwulo (happy to be corrected). If you have any relevant details to share, a Gwulo page can be created for it and I can then add it to the list above. Thanks. 

Could I add my family company, C.E. Warren & Co. to your list? It was best known for sanitary ware and plumbing from 1900 to 1941, and had a large tile factory, first in Sharp Street and then at the end of Warren Street. Warren Street was developed by my grandfather, C.E. Warren around 1915, to house his factory workers and as an access road to the factory. When the tile works moved to Bowrington in 1909, the company was publicised as being one of the most successful home grown industries in Hong Kong. The workshop  also produced many of the gravestones in the Happy Valley cemeteries. I understand from an article by Jason Wordie cited at that there are marble gravestones all over Asia that carry the “C.E. Warren, Causeway Bay, Hong Kong” name plate. Latterly, when based at 98a Wanchai Road, the company was responsible for many large sanitary engineering projects both locally and on the mainland, to which a few surviving manhole covers, found by Gwulo contributors, attest.

Hello Jill, Thanks for bringing this to my attention. I have added C.E. Warren & Co's tile factories to the list under a new heading, 'Ceramics/Tile Factories'. If you know of any other factories/sites that the company used for manufacturing purposes, and their approx location, I'll be happy to add those too. Cheers, Liz

Thank you Liz. I don't think the company can itself lay claim to ceramics as the C.E. Warren ads emphasize that the porcelain sanitary ware was all imported from England. However, in 1909 and onwards the company had a hardware factory at 100-108 Wanchai Road that manufactured "all kinds of brass and galvanised iron work." This included "builders' supplies of every description - bolts, hinges, casement fasteners, jalousie fittings, butts, storage tanks, staircases." Hot and cold water installations were their speciality and, together with the tiles, probably their best-seller over the decades.

And Jill, I've also added the C.E. Warren 'hardware factory' you mentioned.